CFRT Hot Melt UD Prepreg Machine
Our self-developed UD prepreg machine is suitable for producing thermoplastic composite sheets.
It can be used to prepare various materials such as GF/PP, GF/PET/GF/PET, etc.
Prepreg tape can be used in aerospace, automation manufacturing ,reinforced thermoplastic pipe(RTP),thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP）and so on.
- Hot Melt Prepreg Machine Suit for PP/PET/PC/PA6 etc. Resin
- Fiber: Glass Fiber, Carbon Fiber, Basalt Fiber, Aramid Fiber
- Production Method: Hot Melt Impregnation
- Uni-Directional Prepreg Tape Thickness:0.15-0.45mm
Your Most Trustworthy Thermoplastic UD Prepreg Machine Supplier
Jota Machinery is committed to providing thermoplastic hot melt UD prepreg machine ,carbon fiber prepreg machine, unidirectional prepreg tape slitting machines, prepreg slitting machine , aerospace narrow tape slitting and winding machines and other composite material equipment for research companies, institutions, and aerospace companies.
We have a history of more than 10 years in the research and development and production of CFRT composite equipment.
The companies that Jota Machinery has served all praise us for our professionalism and equipment that can meet their needs.
Thermoplastic Hot Melt UD Impregnation Method
Hot melt ud impregnation method is widely used in the production of composite materials, particularly in the aerospace, automotive, and construction industries.
The process is known for its ability to produce high-strength, lightweight, and durable composites with excellent mechanical properties.
The thermoplastic hot melt UD impregnation method has gained popularity due to its ease of use, versatility, and cost-effectiveness compared to other composite manufacturing techniques.
Special Design (4)
An effective thermal paper slitting machine gadget is an automatic tail cutter and gluer.
It may trim the surplus paper at the end of the thermal paper roll (the tail) and glue it together to prevent it from unraveling. You don’t have to worry about the tail being too long or too short with this gadget since it will automatically adapt to your requirements.
Overlapping is a frequent problem in thermal paper slitting machines. Overlapping will create printing and cutting issues, reducing the efficiency of the whole manufacturing process.
The banana roller may spread the edges of the paper to prevent overlapping. For many years, it has been frequently utilized in thermal paper slitting machines and has shown to be successful.
Our firm created a new sort of unwinding stand called the hydraulic shaftless unwinding stand. It has high efficiency, low energy consumption, and simple operation, and its performance is consistent.
The shaftless unwinding stand’s primary power source is a hydraulic cylinder, which provides power for raising or lowering the load through an electronic control valve. Its construction is straightforward and simple to maintain and repair.
Jota Machinery has introduced a new waste edge trimmer device. The waste edge will be evacuated via the air tube, which also serves the purpose of shredding paper.
The machine can substantially minimize waste paper volume while also improving sorting accuracy.
This device suits for our big-size paper slitting machine i.e. film slitting machine, semi-automatic thermal paper slitting machine
Machine Configuration (4)
Exploring the 5 Key Aspects of Hydrogen Storage Tank Filament Winding Technology
Hydrogen energy, a zero-carbon source, offers numerous advantages, positioning it as a highly promising secondary energy solution for the 21st century.
These advantages encompass abundant sources, clean and environmentally friendly properties, high combustion value, absence of pollution, and efficient storage and transportation capabilities.
The utilization of hydrogen energy spans a wide range of applications, including hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, fuel cell forklifts, fuel cell power stations, and emergency backup power supplies for communication base stations.
The gradual promotion of these typical hydrogen energy utilization products holds significant importance in addressing global energy and environmental challenges.
The complete chain of hydrogen energy utilization consists of production, storage, transportation, and application.
Among these stages, safe and reliable hydrogen storage technology plays a pivotal role in determining the widespread adoption of hydrogen energy.
Regarding on-board hydrogen storage, several options are available, namely high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage, low-temperature liquid hydrogen storage, solid hydrogen storage, and organic liquid hydrogen storage.
Among these choices, high-pressure hydrogen storage has gained considerable attention due to its advantages, such as a simple equipment structure, low energy consumption for compressed oxygen preparation, and rapid filling and discharging capabilities.
As a result, high-pressure hydrogen storage is currently the predominant method for hydrogen energy storage and transportation.
When determining the nominal working pressure of high-pressure oxygen storage cylinders, several factors are taken into consideration, including compression energy consumption, mileage, infrastructure development, and safety.
Typically, the nominal working pressure ranges from 35 to 70 MPa.
High-pressure oxygen storage cylinders can be classified into 5 types:
Among these types, Type I and Type II tanks have high weight-to-volume ratios, posing challenges in meeting the storage density requirements of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
Conversely, Type III and Type IV hydrogen tanks offer the advantages of low weight-to-volume ratios and high oxygen storage density per unit mass due to their fully winding fiber structures.
As a result, they are widely utilized in hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles.
In this article, Jota Machinery will delve into the technology behind hydrogen storage tanks, focusing on 8 key aspects.
Various types of hydrogen storage tanks are available
All-metal hydrogen tank (Type I)
Type I hydrogen tanks are constructed solely of metal and consist of a metallic liner with the neck portion and an optional end plug.
These tanks are simple to manufacture and cost-effective. They may also be referred to as Type 1 hydrogen tanks or cylinders.
Metal liner fiber hoop-winding hydrogen tank (Type II)
Type II hydrogen tanks feature a metallic inner liner, usually made of aluminum, with an outer wrapping that enhances its physical properties.
This design allows for higher hydrogen tank pressures while maintaining a relatively thin liner, resulting in a weight advantage.
The outer wrapping is typically made of synthetic material. They may also be referred to as Type 2 hydrogen tanks or cylinders.
Metal liner fiber fully winding hydrogen tank (Type III)
Type III hydrogen tanks reduce the reliance on the inner metallic liner to bear the pressure load, instead utilizing other layers wrapped around it.
The outer wrapping takes on additional support and restraining tasks.
They may also be referred to as Type 3 hydrogen tanks or cylinders.
Non-metallic liner bile fiber fully winding hydrogen tank (Type IV)
Type IV hydrogen tanks have a non-metallic inner liner composed of composite materials and are encased in an outer wrapping made of carbon fiber and other interwoven thermoplastic polymers.
These tanks can weigh up to 70% less than Type I tanks, making them attractive for applications requiring high-pressure hydrogen storage and low system weight.
They may also be referred to as Type IV hydrogen tanks or cylinders.
In addition to the above types, there are composite full winding (V type) hydrogen storage cylinders available.
Type I and Type II containers pose challenges in meeting the storage density requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles due to their high weight-to-volume ratios.
On the other hand, Type III and Type IV cylinders offer significant advantages with their compact weight-to-volume ratios and high oxygen storage density per unit mass, thanks to their fully wound fiber structure.
As a result, Type III and Type IV cylinders are widely used in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
Composite material hydrogen storage cylinders consist of distinct layers arranged from the inside out, including the inner lining material, transition layer, fiber winding layer, outer protective layer, and buffer layer.
Given the extended filling period of hydrogen storage cylinders and the high-pressure permeability of hydrogen, it is crucial for the lining material of the hydrogen storage tank to possess exceptional barrier properties.
This ensures effective retention of a significant portion of the gas within the container.
The structure of a Type IV hydrogen storage tank comprises the following essential components
The wall of the tank has an overall thickness of approximately 20-30mm, with the innermost layer serving as a direct contact barrier for hydrogen gas.
This barrier layer, typically 2-3mm thick, is made of materials such as PA6, PA612, PA11, and HDPE, chosen for their effective hydrogen gas blocking properties.
This layer acts as a robust, pressure-resistant barrier and is composed of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced composite) material.
It consists of carbon fibers embedded in an epoxy resin matrix.
Efforts are made to minimize the thickness of this layer to optimize hydrogen storage efficiency while maintaining adequate pressure resistance.
The outermost layer of the hydrogen storage tank is a protective coating approximately 2-3mm thick. It is constructed using GFRP (glass fiber reinforced composite) material, consisting of glass fibers embedded in an epoxy resin matrix.
This surface layer provides additional durability and protection for the tank.
Raw materials and manufacturing processes for the liner
Type IV hydrogen tank liners primarily use materials such as PA6, HDPE, and PET polyester plastics.
The manufacturing processes commonly employed include injection molding, blow molding, and rotational molding.
Automakers like Toyota and Hyundai utilize the injection molding method combined with welding for mass production of their Type IV tanks.
Although injection molding offers cost advantages and widespread application, it may have a lower yield rate and require subsequent welding processes to complete the manufacturing.
Filament winding technology
The carbon fiber winding process encompasses two primary techniques: wet winding and dry winding.
Wet winding is widely utilized due to its cost-effectiveness and excellent manufacturability.
It requires specific equipment, including a fiber creel, a tension control system, a resin impregnation bath, and a rotating mandrel structure.
When designing the fiber winding layer, careful consideration must be given to the fiber’s anisotropic properties.
The stress distribution of the container head, lining, and fiber winding layer is typically calculated using laminate theory and grid theory to align with the structural requirements.
The tension during the winding process is determined using a line-type distribution.
To achieve a multi-level structure, alternating hoop winding and helical winding are employed, along with selecting appropriate fiber stacking areas, longitudinal winding angles, and helical winding line types.
This approach ensures both meeting the strength requirements and adequately covering the head.
Wet Filament Winding for hydrogen storage tank
The wet winding process is a molding method where the carbon fiber tow is impregnated in a specific dipping device, then directly wind on the mandrel under tension control, and finally cured.
Its main advantages include:
The production cost of wet winding is approximately 40% lower than that of dry winding. The process requires relatively simple equipment, has a smaller equipment investment, and imposes fewer raw material requirements.
During the winding process, excess resin glue can eliminate air bubbles and fill gaps by controlling the tension, resulting in good air tightness.
The resin glue impregnated on the surface of carbon fiber effectively reduces fiber wear.
Fiber arrangement: The wet winding process achieves good parallelism of fiber arrangement.
Drying Winding for hydrogen storage tank
The dry winding process involves using prepreg, a treated material, as the primary raw material.
The prepreg is heated and softened to a viscous state on the winding machine before being wound onto the mandrel.
The dry winding process offers several advantages:
The use of professionally produced prepreg roving/tape enables precise control over the fiber and resin content ratio, ensuring consistently high-quality and stable products.
High production efficiency
The dry winding process exhibits remarkable production efficiency, with winding speeds reaching 100-200m/min.
This speed enhances productivity and enables timely delivery.
Clean and durable equipment
The winding equipment and production environment associated with the dry winding process maintain cleanliness and tidiness.
The equipment is designed for easy cleaning, ensuring optimal hygiene standards.
Additionally, the longevity of the winding machine is extended, contributing to cost-effectiveness and reduced maintenance requirements.
Hoop winding involves meticulous winding along the circumference of a container.
During the winding operation, the mandrel rotates at a consistent speed around its own axis, while the guide wire moves parallel to the mandrel’s axis along the barrel section.
Each revolution of the mandrel corresponds to the movement of the guide head by one yarn sheet width.
This cycle ensures even coverage of the mandrel cylinder section with yarn sheets.
Hoop winding is limited to the body of the cylinder for winding, excluding the head.
The adjacent yarn sheets are connected without overlap, and the fiber winding angle typically ranges between 85° and 90°.
Helical winding, also known as geodesic winding, is a systematic winding process applied to both the cylinder body and head of the mandrel.
During helical winding, the mandrel rotates consistently around its own axis at a fixed speed, while the guide wire reciprocates along the mandrel’s axis at a specific speed.
This combination produces a helical pattern with a winding angle ranging from approximately 12° to 70°.
In helical winding, the filaments are wound not only on the barrel but also on the head of the mandrel.
The winding process follows a specific trajectory, starting from a designated point on the polar hole circle at one end of the container, traversing around the head following the curve tangent to the polar hole circle on the head’s surface, continuing along the helical path around the cylinder section, and reentering the opposite end of the head.
The fiber is then guided back to the cylindrical section, ultimately returning to the starting point of the head winding.
This cyclic process continues until the surface of the mandrel is evenly enveloped by the fibers, resulting in the formation of a double-layer fiber layer.
To ensure that the winding gas cylinder meets the necessary pressure requirements for its intended use, a combination of hoop winding and spiral winding is often employed, selected based on the specific winding method.
Full-composite winding hydrogen tank(Type V)
The development of high-pressure gas storage vessels and tanks has undergone significant advancements, culminating in the fifth stage of innovation: the full-composite linerless storage tanks known as V-type tanks.
V-type pressure vessels are widely recognized as the epitome of excellence in the pressure vessel industry, embodying remarkable progress in both product design and technological advancements.
Unlike the three-layer structure of IV hydrogen tanks, which consists of a resin-lined inner tank, a carbon fiber-reinforced resin layer in the middle, and a glass fiber-reinforced resin layer on the surface, V-type tanks feature a linerless two-layer structure.
This innovative design incorporates a carbon fiber composite material shell and a glass fiber reinforced resin layer for dome protection.
Notably, V-type tank offer numerous advantages over their Type IV counterparts, including a remarkable working pressure capacity of 70-100MPa, exceptional resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion, an extended service life of over 30 years, and cost-effectiveness.
These remarkable features make V-type tank highly suitable for aerospace and automotive applications.
Currently, V-type tank technology is still emerging in the market and has garnered significant attention from various industries due to its development potential and the opportunities it presents.
The mandrel utilized in the manufacturing process is created through casting and bonding two sections of a water-soluble core material.
It possesses a substantial wall thickness of 30mm and incorporates internal ring ribs to enhance its ability to withstand torsional loads during fiber layup and the stresses encountered during fiber curing.
The prepreg material is meticulously cut into narrow 6.35mm wide tapes, which are continuously wound over a remarkable length of 22,000 meters.
The winding process is meticulously controlled using specialized software that governs both helical and circular winding techniques.
The resulting structure comprises an impressive 24 layers, achieving a substantial thickness of up to 5.5mm.
Our expertise lies in providing high-quality equipment and solutions to meet the specific needs of our clients.
If you would like to obtain more information about our composite material equipment and services, we encourage you to contact us without hesitation.
Our team is ready to assist you and provide further details tailored to your requirements.
prepregs are a high-performance composite material that offers excellent mechanical properties, low weight, and versatility.
They are widely used in aerospace, automotive, and other high-performance industries for their consistent quality and superior performance.
With the continued development of new resin systems and fiber technologies, prepregs are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future of advanced materials.
Here are some common types of thermoplastic resins along with their abbreviations:
- Polyethylene (PE): PE is a lightweight and durable thermoplastic resin that is commonly used in packaging, automotive components, and consumer goods.
- Polypropylene (PP): PP is a thermoplastic resin known for its excellent chemical resistance and high strength-to-weight ratio. It is often used in automotive parts, medical devices, and consumer goods.
- Polycarbonate (PC): PC is a strong and transparent thermoplastic resin that is often used in applications that require impact resistance, such as safety glasses, electronic components, and automotive parts.
- Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS): ABS is a thermoplastic resin that combines the strength and rigidity of acrylonitrile and butadiene with the toughness of styrene. It is commonly used in the manufacture of automotive parts, toys, and household appliances.
- Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): PVC is a versatile and cost-effective thermoplastic resin that is often used in construction, electrical cables, and medical devices.
- Polystyrene (PS): PS is a lightweight and rigid thermoplastic resin that is often used in packaging, disposable cutlery, and insulation.
Here are some common types of thermosetting resins along with their abbreviations:
- Epoxy (EP): Epoxy is a versatile and widely used thermosetting resin known for its excellent adhesive properties, high strength, and resistance to chemicals and moisture. It is often used in composites, coatings, and adhesives.
- Phenolic (PF): Phenolic resin is a thermosetting resin that is highly resistant to heat and fire. It is commonly used in high-temperature applications, such as electrical insulation, and in the manufacture of brake pads and clutch discs.
- Polyester (PE): Polyester resin is a thermosetting resin that is known for its high strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion. It is often used in the manufacture of fiberglass composites, boat hulls, and automotive parts.
- Polyurethane (PU): Polyurethane resin is a versatile thermosetting resin that can be formulated to have a wide range of properties, including flexibility, hardness, and chemical resistance. It is commonly used in coatings, adhesives, and insulation.
Thermoset and thermoplastic materials are two distinct categories of polymers that are widely used in various industries.
While they may seem similar, there are significant differences between them in terms of their properties and applications.
In this article, we will discuss the key differences between thermoset and thermoplastic materials.
- Definition and Basic Properties
Thermoset materials are cross-linked polymers that, once cured, cannot be melted or reshaped.
They are typically formed by a chemical reaction that creates a three-dimensional network of covalent bonds between polymer chains.
Examples of thermoset materials include epoxies, phenolics, and polyesters.
Thermoplastic materials, on the other hand, are linear or branched polymers that can be melted and reshaped multiple times without any significant chemical change.
They are typically formed by heating and cooling a polymer to a specific temperature range.
Examples of thermoplastic materials include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polycarbonate.
- Properties and Applications
Thermoset materials are known for their high strength, durability, and resistance to heat and chemicals.
They are commonly used in applications that require high-performance materials, such as aerospace, automotive, and electrical industries.
For example, phenolic resins are often used as insulation in electrical components, and epoxies are used as adhesives and coatings in aerospace applications.
Thermoplastic materials, on the other hand, are known for their flexibility, ease of processing, and recyclability.
They are widely used in consumer products, packaging, and automotive industries.
For example, polyethylene is commonly used in plastic bags and containers, and polycarbonate is used in automotive headlights and safety glasses.
- Processing and Recycling
Thermoset materials are typically processed through a curing process that involves heat or chemical reactions.
Once cured, they cannot be melted or reshaped, which makes recycling difficult.
Thermoplastic materials, on the other hand, can be melted and reshaped multiple times without any significant chemical change, which makes them easier to process and recycle.
They can be melted and molded into new products, which reduces waste and conserves resources.
Polypropylene honeycomb is a lightweight and strong material that has been gaining popularity in various industries.
It is made up of hexagonal cells that are connected by thin walls, forming a strong and rigid structure.
This material has excellent strength-to-weight ratio and is highly resistant to moisture, chemicals, and UV radiation.