Do you value safety more than anything in your industry? Having employees that are well trained on all the safest ways to handle a piece of machinery is vital for safety. However, having the right equipment that’s up to date with all the safety measures is a plus.
It’s crucial for every individual that operates heavy machinery to have a safe braking system. If your machinery can’t stop instantly whenever you
apply brakes, you need a new braking system. The electromagnetic power braking system is the most widely used machinery since it guarantees more safety. Read on to learn more about electromagnetic power brake and why you need it.
Magnetic Powder Brake Meaning
Electromagnetic brakes refer to devices that depend on electromagnetic force to hold their load in place. There are several types of electromagnetic
power brake operating with the same principle. They all require electric current to pass through a coil creating a strong magnetic field that moves
the armature on or off a magnetic face. The friction surface gives the necessary breaking torque. The braking systems have a wide range of
applications such as; defense, medical procedures, aerospace, robotics, etc.
Components of Electromagnetic Braking System
The electromagnetic braking system has six components which include:
The battery is responsible for supplying the electromagnetic coil with current whenever necessary to apply brakes.
- Electromagnetic Coil
An electromagnetic coil is a spiral wire made of copper incorporated inside a stator. Electromagnetic fields are produced in the coil when supplied with current from the battery.
- Friction Material
The friction material is connected to the stator to slow or prevent the armature from moving.
The armature consists of a ferromagnetic material and is mounted on the armature hub using splines. The splines make the armature flexible enough to slide on the armature hub. It’s also connected to the armature hub using plate springs and has a friction surface on one side.
- Plate Spring
Plate springs ensure the armature goes back to its initial position when the magnetic field is disconnected.
- Armature Hub
The armature hub is used to mount the armature using splines. It’s linked to the output shaft using a critical joint.
How Does Magnetic Brake Work?
The magnetic powder brake working principle is that it converts kinetic energy to thermal energy. A stopping force as powerful as the force that
puts the car in motion is activated and dissipates the kinetic energy as heat whenever you start the brakes. The brakes stop the car instantly
regardless of the speed of the vehicle.
An electromagnetic power brake uses electric actuation while transferring torque mechanically. The coil gets energy whenever the brake gets
current or voltage, thus creating a magnetic field. The field then converts the coil to an electromagnet that builds a magnetic flux line.
The hub and armature are mounted on the rotating shaft. The coil is attracted to the hub and armature, thus causing the shaft to stop in a short
time. The armature turns to a shaft when the brake isn’t receiving current anymore.
Removal of power from the magnet causes the flat springs to pull the armature away from the magnet face and across the air gap. The shaft
becomes free to rotate with no residual drag when there is an air gap between the armature and the magnet.
Types of Electromagnetic Power Brakes
Several types of electromagnetic brakes have evolved rapidly due to their efficiency. However, the commonly used brake is single face break which makes up 80% of all the power applied brakes.
- Single Face Brake
Single face break applies a single plate surface friction to connect the clutch output and input members. It consists of a coil, friction disc, springs,
armature plate, pressure plate, and a hub. The hub is connected to the motor’s shaft. Current is applied to the coil, and the coil creates an
electromagnetic field. The magnetic field attracts the armature plate to the coil, which compresses the springs.
That, in turn, releases the friction disc allowing it to rotate together with the hub and the load. When the power is disconnected, the brakes stop.
The electromagnetic forces dissipate; thus, the armature plates shift from the coil. These brakes are commonly used in:
- Robotic arm
- Flight control surfaces
- Power Off Brake
Power breaks are mainly applied near or on an electric motor. They majorly hold or stop a load when there is no electrical power. In some cases, they increase torque using multiple disks while maintaining the diameter of the brake. There are two types of power-off brakes:
- Spring Applied Breaks
Spring applied breaks don’t apply electricity. A spring pushes against a pressure plate while maintaining the outer cover plate and the inner power plate friction disk. Friction is given out and transmitted to the hub mounted to a shaft.
- Permanent Magnet Brakes
It applies a permanent magnet to attract the armature via springs. The permanent magnet gives magnetic flux lines when using the brakes, which
attracts the armature to the brake housing. The coil gets sufficient power to disconnect the brake and build an air gap. That creates an alternate
magnetic field that eliminates the magnetic flux of the permanent magnets.
This electromagnetic brake type is best for uses that need specific stopping, like safety features, since it has zero backlashes. Zero backlashes are where the brakes stop immediately when applied.
- Particle Break
Particle breaks consist of a wide available operating torque range. You can easily control its torque within its unit operating RPM range. Its thus
perfect for tension control applications like tape tension control, foil, wire winding, and film.
It consists of a powder cavity and magnetic particles. The coil binds the particles together, forming a magnetic particle slush whenever you apply
electricity. An increase in electricity makes the binding stronger. The brake rotor goes through these bound particles creating a resistant force that slows and stops the output shaft.
They have a fast response; thus, you can use them in high-cycle applications like labelling equipment, sorting machines, and magnetic card readers.
- Hysteresis Power Brake
Hysteresis brakes have a vast torque range, and you can control them remotely. That makes them perfect for test stand applications where you
need varying torque. Applying electricity to the field creates an internal magnetic flux transmitted to the hysteresis disk.
The disk is connected to the brake shaft; thus, magnetic drag on the hysteresis disk results in constant drag and stoppage of the output brake shaft.
Once you disconnect electricity, the hysteresis disk becomes free to turn; thus, relative force isn’t transmitted between the members.
Electromagnetic Brakes Vs. Eddy Current Brakes
An electromagnetic brake depends on magnetism to swing a physical lever against the wheel shaft to stop a moving vehicle. In contrast, eddy
current brakes mainly use the power of two opposite magnetic fields to stop. Eddy current brakes solely depend on an eddy current created when
you pass a conductor through a magnetic field.
The conductors form their opposite magnetic field that interacts with the original field, stopping the conductor from moving. Eddy current brakes
apply electromagnets and not permanent magnets since the strength of a magnetic field can be controlled by electricity.
It lasts longer than an electromagnetic brake since the system depends on a magnetic field to function as a brake and has less movement.
Significant applications of eddy current brakes are:
- High-speed train
- Emergency shutoff
- Amusement park rides
- Exercise equipment
- Power tools and industrial equipment
What are the Characteristics of a Good Braking System?
You need to pay attention to some characteristics when selecting your electronic braking system. These qualities ensure that you get excellent brakes that will last you longer and save you the cost of repairing or replacing them every time. Here are the things to look out for;
Proper breaks create little or no noise when you are using them. However, you may hear squealing or other noise forms if the brake pads are thin, thus creating less friction than required to slow or stop the vehicle.
The weight of the brake is the physical weight incorporated into a motor when installing the brakes. Some tires have specific brake limits; hence surpassing this limit causes problems with traction and handling.
- Continuous Power Dissipation
Continuously using brakes, especially when going down hills, automatically makes them hot. Brake failure occurs typically when the brakes become extremely hot. Continuous power dissipation is thus the most heat that is dispersed through brakes without it failing to function correctly.
- Peak Force
The maximum deceleration effect is the peak force that you can hear from the brakes. A wheel may skid across the pavement when the peak force of breaks is more than the traction limit of the tire. Usually, the brake stopping power is more than the one present on the traction tire.
Fade refers to how the brakes lose power as they continuously heat up. Different types of brakes withstand the fade differently. Some are immune to heat temperatures, while others are prone to high fade rates.
- Pedal Feel
Pedal feel refers to the amount of power felt when applying the brakes. These consist of the resistance you feel and the amount of pressure you need
to use for different levels of brake pressure. Some brakes have a tight grip, while others are loose. However, this doesn’t affect the effectiveness of the brakes.
Brakes smoothness is what you feel within the car when applying brakes. Some brakes are chatter, grabby or jerky. That varies depending on the
quality of the brake, usage, age of the brakes, and whether it was installed correctly. Generally, an excellent braking system should be smooth and
not cause friction.
Applications of Electromagnetic Brakes in Robotics
This involves automated technologies that complete complex projects without damaging the crops. They have ideal breaks that help maintain exact torque in robotic arms for picking, i.e. fruit-picking robots.
- Oils and Mining
Subterranean and subsea vehicles must have excellent brake systems with great sizes to ensure they move smoothly in small, uneven and high-pressure environments.
Automated, underwater, and unscrewed vehicles take advantage of the braking system that functions fast whenever you halt your movement or hold the control system in place.
An ideal surgical robot must have a braking system that maintains torque while the robot handles medical tools, and operates in three-dimensional
space and creates incisions.
Advantages of Electromagnetic Power Brakes
Electromagnetic powder brakes have several benefits to the user compared to alternative braking solutions. These includes:
- Reduced Wear
Mechanical braking is usually accompanied by massive friction to stop or slow load. The friction is generally intense, thus occasionally leading to
wear and tear over some usage period. However, using electromagnetic brakes with ideal friction material to slow or stop action will significantly
reduce the amount of wear and tear.
- Improved Heat Dissipation
A well-designed electromagnetic power brake is more effective in lowering the amount of heat dissipated than the mechanical system or other options.
- Enhanced Performance
The brakes allow you to customize it according to your preference to provide precise engagement, fast action and smooth backlash-free operation.
- Lowers Cost
The electromagnetic power braking system improves braking frequency while reducing the amount of wear and tear. They last longer and don’t
need lots of maintenance hence lowering the cost of repairing or buying new brakes over a short period.
- Control Braking Speed
Having machinery that stops or slows immediately on command is beneficial. Magnetic powder brake controller offers you the power to adjust your
current DC; thus, you get complete control over how fast or slow the motor stops.
- Increased Safety
In most cases, a mechanical brake won’t stop immediately when you command it. That could potentially harm either your employees or the people
around it. Electromagnetic braking systems are designed to prevent the power from flowing to the machine and stop or slow on command.
An electromagnetic power brake is a great device that your business needs. It ensures you get comfortable while maintaining low operating costs
since they aren’t susceptible to wear and tear. Additionally, their instant braking helps you avoid the minor accidents you may incur with a
mechanical braking system. Try this electromagnetic braking system today and enjoy all these numerous benefits. Contact us now; we will help you find the best braking system for your business.